Database statistics on research grants

This page provides advanced statistics on research grants issued in the US, Europe, Canada and Australia. Data includes information on projects, countries, research and financial organizations, scientists. The rating of organizations and scientists is based on the calculation of funding and the number of projects.

 
  • Projects
  • Geography
  • Investigators
  • Recipients
  • Donors
Active: 185796  Completed: 2674561  Total: 2860357  Total subprj: 507374 
Unclassified: 132837   Classified: 2727520   Classified Automatically: 2723251  
Classified Manually: 4339  Classified As Aging: 1356872 
Publications: 2135224 

Top 50 active projects:

Project name Start date End date Funding
Implementation Of Activities Described In The Roadmap To Fusion During Horizon 2020 Through A Joint Programme Of The Members Of The Eurofusion Consortium 01/01/2014 12/31/2018 $942,658,131
Sunliquid® Large Scale Demonstration Plant For The Production Of Cellulosic Ethanol 04/01/2014 03/31/2018 $247,047,335
300Mm Pilot Line For Smart Power And Power Discretes 11/01/2017 04/30/2021 $218,184,837
Seven Nanometer Technology 04/01/2015 03/31/2018 $199,188,623
Technology Advances And Key Enablers For 5 Nm 04/01/2016 03/31/2019 $165,051,678
Combatting Bacterial Resistance In Europe 01/01/2013 12/31/2019 $164,637,392
Technology Advances And Key Enablers For Module Integration For 5 Nm 04/01/2017 03/31/2019 $160,919,490
Scaling Up To The Normandie Hydro Open-Centre Tidal Turbine Pilot Array 09/01/2017 08/31/2020 $142,652,646
Nci-Frederick Operations And Technical Support Ii 09/26/2008 09/25/2018 $131,483,648
Electronics And Ict As Enabler For Digital Industry And Optimized Supply Chain Management Covering The Entire Product Lifecycle 05/01/2017 04/30/2020 $128,710,986
Joint Initiative For Hydrogen Vehicles Across Europe 01/01/2017 12/31/2022 $128,271,102
Joint Initiative For Hydrogen Vehicles Across Europe 2 01/01/2018 12/31/2023 $128,244,691
Combatting Bacterial Resistance In Europe - Molecules Against Gram Negative Infections 01/01/2015 12/31/2021 $123,130,949
Hydrogen Mobility Europe 2 05/01/2016 06/30/2022 $116,846,280
Gn4-2 Research And Education Networking - Géant 05/01/2016 12/31/2018 $116,043,847
Development Of A Prophylactic Ebola Vaccine Using An Heterologous Prime-Boost Regimen 12/01/2014 11/30/2019 $111,366,562
Cabig Cancer Knowledge Cloud: Oncology Extended Ehrs 09/26/2008 09/25/2018 $103,000,000
Cabig Cancer Knowledge Cloud: Oncology Extended Ehrs 09/26/2008 09/25/2018 $103,000,000
Pathway To A Competitive European Fc Mchp Market 06/01/2016 02/28/2021 $99,337,804
Graphene-Based Disruptive Technologies 04/01/2016 03/31/2018 $97,900,000
Human Brain Project Specific Grant Agreement 1 04/01/2016 03/31/2018 $97,900,000
European Gram Negative Antibacterial Engine 02/01/2014 01/31/2020 $97,476,860
Enhanced Substrates And Gan Pilot Lines Enabling Compact Power Applications 05/01/2015 04/30/2018 $96,375,114
Energy For Smart Objects 01/01/2016 12/31/2019 $90,491,715
Public Procurement Of Innovative Solutions For High-Performance Computing 04/01/2017 09/30/2021 $89,773,887
European Human Biomonitoring Initiative 01/01/2017 12/31/2021 $89,612,105
European Research Area For Climate Services 01/01/2016 12/31/2020 $86,112,663
Hydrogen Mobility Europe 06/01/2015 05/31/2020 $79,091,156
Advancing Fail-Aware, Fail-Safe, And Fail-Operational Electronic Components, Systems, And Architectures For Fully Automated Driving To Make Future Mobility Safer, Affordable, And End-User Acceptable. 05/01/2017 04/30/2020 $78,780,564
Nci Community Cancer Centers Program (Ncccp) 09/26/2008 09/25/2018 $77,153,000
Tas::75 0849::Tas Incremental Funding 09/26/2008 09/25/2018 $72,678,963
Flexible Fe/Be Sensor Pilot Line For The Internet Of Everything 05/01/2016 04/30/2019 $71,796,686
European Initiative To Enable Validation For Highly Automated Safe And Secure Systems 05/01/2016 04/30/2019 $71,297,730
Beyond State-Of-The-Art Technologies For Power Ac Corridors And Multi-Terminal Hvdc Systems 10/01/2014 09/30/2018 $69,082,480
Power Semiconductor And Electronics Manufacturing 4.0 05/01/2016 04/30/2019 $68,185,342
Gh13-1301: Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative And Expanded Programme On Immunization 01/01/2013 12/31/2018 $65,602,547
European Prevention Of Alzheimer’S Dementia Consortium 01/01/2015 12/31/2019 $61,601,585
Development Of A Prophylactic Ebola Vaccine Using An Heterologous Prime-Boost Regimen: Phase Ii 12/01/2014 11/30/2019 $61,360,181
Production Of Fully Synthetic Paraffinic Jet Fuel From Wood And Other Biomass 01/01/2015 12/31/2019 $61,171,083
Combatting Bacterial Resistance In Europe - Carbapenem Resistance 03/01/2015 02/28/2020 $60,892,591
Cahub 09/26/2008 09/25/2018 $60,000,000
Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative And Expanded Programme On Immunization 01/01/2013 12/31/2018 $59,407,763
Integrated Components For Complexity Control In Affordable Electrified Cars 06/01/2015 05/31/2018 $58,189,723
Demonstration For Tidal Industry Derisking 01/01/2017 12/31/2020 $58,079,294
The European Network For Observing Our Changing Planet 02/01/2016 01/31/2021 $57,597,558
Molecular Characterization And Clinical Assay Development Program 09/26/2015 09/25/2021 $57,230,985
Leadership And Operations Center (Loc), Aids Clinical Trials Group (Actg); Loc 1/ 06/29/2006 11/30/2020 $56,989,695
Promotion - Progress On Meshed Hvdc Offshore Transmission Networks 01/01/2016 12/31/2019 $56,853,863
Popular-Based Hiv Impact Assessments In Resource-Constrained Steeings Under Pepfar 09/30/2014 09/29/2019 $56,573,000
Piloting Automated Driving On European Roads 09/01/2017 08/31/2021 $56,488,694

Top 50 completed projects:

Project name Start date End date Funding
European Facilities For Nuclear Data Measurements 11/01/2006 10/31/2010 $2,362,232,012
Belgo-German In-Situ Gasification Experiment 01/01/1989 04/01/1986 $1,131,437,266
Logistics Support Of Operations/Research Activities Related To The United States Program In Antarctica 10/01/1989 02/28/2003 $903,101,805
Dod Support To Antarctic Mission 06/01/1997 09/30/2012 $836,620,297
335 Mwe Gross (Iso Conditions) Igcc Plant Prenflo Coal Gasification Process (Puertollano) 02/05/1992 02/29/2000 $617,993,501
335 Mwe Gross (Iso Conditions) Igcc Plant Prenflo Coal Gasification Process (Puertollano) 09/01/1992 05/26/1997 $617,993,501
System Integration Contractor For The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program 09/15/2003 06/30/2015 $610,143,790
European 450Mm Lithography And Metrology Development For Advanced Patterning 10/01/2014 10/01/2017 $555,760,814
Selective Synthesis 09/10/1992 09/09/1997 $550,000,000
335 Mwe Gross (Iso Conditions) Igcc Plant Prenflo Coal Gasification Process (Puertollano) 06/01/1992 04/01/2000 $532,258,065
335 Mwe Gross (Iso Conditions) Igcc Plant Prenflo Coal Gasification Process (Puertollano) 09/01/1992 03/31/2000 $523,809,517
Management And Operations Of The Ocean Drilling Program 07/15/2000 09/30/2007 $472,782,728
Pilot Lines For Advanced Cmos Embodiments In 2X Nodes, Built In Europe 12/03/2012 12/31/2015 $394,722,024
Management And Operations Of The Ocean Drilling Program 01/01/1984 09/30/1993 $354,759,097
Advanced System And Software Engineering Enabling Technologies For Heterogeneous Open Distributed Systems 01/01/1993 12/31/1996 $346,170,000
Chemistry At Surfaces And Interfaces 09/24/1992 09/23/1997 $330,000,000
Enhancement Of Alma Early Science 01/01/2006 09/30/2012 $312,687,637
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2017 12/31/2017 $309,811,058
Provision Of Scientific, Technical And Administrative Management Of Cost 06/02/2007 01/01/2015 $308,094,987
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2016 12/31/2016 $300,605,102
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2015 12/31/2015 $287,906,483
A Long-Term Biodiversity, Ecosystem And Awareness Research Network 04/01/2004 03/31/2009 $279,400,000
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2014 12/31/2014 $275,871,489
Operation, Maintenance And Management Of The National Centerfor Atmospheric Research 10/01/1982 09/30/1987 $272,834,174
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2012 12/31/2012 $271,746,213
Trusted Computing For European Embedded Devices 01/01/2011 12/01/2013 $270,430,076
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2013 12/31/2013 $263,817,945
Design And Preparation Of New Molecular Systems With Unconventional Electrical, Optical And Magnetic Properties 09/14/1992 09/13/1997 $255,420,000
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2009 12/31/2009 $250,355,446
Theory And Modelling Of Chemical Systems And Processes 09/10/1992 09/09/1997 $247,500,000
Panache 01/02/2014 01/02/2018 $247,204,786
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2011 12/31/2011 $243,390,438
National Biomedical Information Services 01/01/2010 12/31/2010 $242,345,898
Molecular Recognition Chemistry 09/14/1992 09/13/1997 $240,900,000
Chemical Processes And Reactions Under Extreme Or Non-Classic Conditions 09/10/1992 09/09/1997 $234,300,000
European 450Mm Equipment Demo Line 10/01/2013 09/30/2016 $226,294,816
Demonstration Plant For Brown Coal Gasification According To The High-Temperature-Winkler Process (Htw) [Phase 1A] 06/09/1983 10/25/1985 $222,940,414
Geant Network 11/01/2000 10/31/2004 $220,046,201
Drilling Sediments In The Pacific And Atlantic Ocean And Adjacent Seas 01/16/1967 04/30/1987 $218,225,738
European Lead Factory 01/01/2013 12/31/2017 $213,630,871
Multi-Gigabit European Research And Education Network And Associated Services (Gn3) 04/01/2009 09/30/2013 $195,445,219
Multi-Gigabit European Academic Network 09/01/2004 08/31/2008 $192,799,176
Providing Tools To Prevent Emergence Of Enteric Viruses 09/01/2004 02/28/2009 $183,172,605
Isis Target Station 2 03/01/2005 03/31/2009 $181,516,622
Management And Information Application Development In Urban Civil Engineering 09/30/1994 09/29/1998 $171,600,000
Central Management And Planning For The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program 04/01/2004 03/31/2014 $166,539,343
Co-Ordination Chemistry In The Context Of Biological And Environmental Studies 09/14/1992 09/13/1997 $165,000,000
Human Frontier Science Program 09/01/1993 09/30/2014 $155,637,172
Arctic Research Support And Logistics Services For The Office Of Polar Programs , National Science Foundation 02/01/2005 05/31/2012 $155,196,010
Which Architecture Yields Two Other Generations Of Fully Depleted Advanced Substrate And Technologies 05/01/2015 04/30/2017 $153,230,214
Countries: 194

Top countries:

Country Funding Projects count
UNITED STATES $757,907,864,245 2187187
GERMANY $32,908,154,122 16700
FRANCE $28,666,042,628 16521
UNITED KINGDOM $27,383,364,784 24699
SPAIN $17,245,645,816 9082
ITALY $17,034,849,946 10838
NETHERLANDS $15,351,927,924 8455
BELGIUM $13,407,114,723 5911
AUSTRALIA $8,306,478,504 21125
SWEDEN $6,560,299,940 3324
SWITZERLAND $5,466,592,043 2781
AUSTRIA $5,060,137,674 2298
GREECE $4,808,551,285 3357
DENMARK $4,367,278,533 3288
FINLAND $3,604,678,659 1820
NORWAY $3,185,820,815 1419
IRELAND $2,975,998,861 2388
ISRAEL $1,964,883,009 2480
SOUTH AFRICA $1,772,813,752 1217
PORTUGAL $1,679,945,367 1997
UGANDA $1,384,220,734 587
CANADA $1,136,677,943 5103
POLAND $882,958,175 950
NIGERIA $821,740,819 288
KENYA $818,907,564 522
HUNGARY $574,457,510 666
CZECH REPUBLIC $530,600,323 426
HAITI $454,650,328 193
TANZANIA U REP $431,266,872 393
ZAMBIA $421,409,188 332
LUXEMBOURG $400,090,085 331
SLOVENIA $395,827,395 321
ICELAND $376,167,347 267
ETHIOPIA $313,134,553 324
NAMIBIA $273,407,746 87
BOTSWANA $246,197,047 92
COTE D'IVOIRE $240,915,626 147
CYPRUS $228,411,068 190
TURKEY $228,372,446 465
RWANDA $225,718,562 107
ESTONIA $205,096,923 205
MOZAMBIQUE $190,949,165 164
VIETNAM $167,662,306 142
CHINA $158,143,928 481
INDIA $148,565,892 482
ROMANIA $136,559,580 209
MALAWI $125,666,220 181
THAILAND $122,178,698 212
SLOVAKIA $118,229,651 152
BERMUDA $116,766,476 199
States: 59

Top US States:

States Funding Projects count
California $104,185,515,397 281693
New York $68,626,922,753 197902
Massachusetts $66,417,626,102 183241
Maryland $47,625,183,530 106529
Pennsylvania $41,050,890,547 126224
Texas $33,009,238,218 105214
North Carolina $27,204,963,592 75862
Illinois $25,546,301,919 80926
Washington $23,377,821,415 59389
Michigan $19,743,011,930 62896
Ohio $19,231,358,664 65137
District of Columbia $18,965,184,062 26068
Colorado $17,360,880,583 41291
Florida $14,843,630,254 43976
Virginia $13,632,523,388 45001
Missouri $13,486,070,895 42674
Georgia $13,412,596,706 41741
Connecticut $13,280,740,510 43322
Wisconsin $12,578,771,606 39815
Tennessee $11,940,982,298 36433
Minnesota $11,582,432,629 36742
New Jersey $10,500,117,499 31787
Oregon $8,889,922,078 28966
Indiana $8,417,876,004 30004
Alabama $8,032,724,937 25185
Arizona $7,188,667,066 23434
Iowa $6,178,590,418 21243
Utah $5,329,203,494 18592
Louisiana $5,041,635,303 15761
South Carolina $4,724,392,602 15349
Rhode Island $4,448,475,788 17977
Kentucky $4,305,323,899 15564
New Mexico $3,728,737,023 11151
Kansas $3,213,462,294 11235
New Hampshire $3,126,324,272 10073
Oklahoma $3,030,381,800 10228
Nebraska $2,850,982,231 9440
Hawaii $2,586,820,201 6736
Maine $2,425,882,476 6584
Puerto Rico $2,159,600,100 4372
Arkansas $2,097,117,413 6417
Vermont $1,994,956,822 6575
Mississippi $1,895,163,055 5435
Alaska $1,613,963,275 3519
Montana $1,600,738,769 4698
Delaware $1,569,771,925 4739
Nevada $1,284,703,662 3690
West Virginia $1,195,269,179 3800
South Dakota $886,807,668 2439
North Dakota $795,297,498 2509
Investigators: 812317

Top 50 scientists (investigators):

Investigator Funding Projects count
Humphreys Betsy $2,445,850,072 9
Gérard Barreau $2,362,232,012 1
Heimbrook David $2,009,435,010 384
Smith William $1,827,029,444 35
Anthes Richard $1,508,275,920 25
Schreier Ethan $1,470,001,823 18
Giacconi Riccardo $1,240,172,401 5
Cheney Michael $1,125,398,321 2
Ferrell William $998,733,848 1
Mountain Charles Mattias $962,647,225 22
Killeen Timothy $957,046,200 5
Hagan Maura $952,889,818 20
Wakimoto Roger $951,742,053 18
KOGER RONALD $903,101,805 1
Barron Eric $899,563,866 15
El-Sadr Wafaa M $813,199,805 112
Hughes Robert $686,079,985 4
Gibbs Richard A $682,811,606 100
Marx Jay $649,445,767 6
Lazzarini Albert $645,985,816 5
Bohlen Steven $625,124,699 6
Gagosian Robert $622,451,264 9
Cowles Timothy $621,128,851 5
Divins David $610,143,790 1
Barish Barry $597,358,437 12
Simpson David $591,276,636 27
Dunning Thomas $589,323,555 11
Lyman Elisabeth H $589,121,160 13
Corey Lawrence $588,153,161 77
Pennington Robert $581,578,576 10
Haynes Barton F $551,801,534 76
Marlink Richard $543,599,509 10
Wilson Richard K $540,238,742 52
Falvey David $527,932,392 2
Moran Kathryn $527,932,392 2
White Rhonda R $506,263,008 15
Kelly Michael $476,681,044 3
Krischer Jeffrey P $465,620,646 67
Lowy Douglas R $464,235,983 36
Oertel Goetz $460,084,824 2
Boebinger Gregory $440,250,465 4
Arthur Larry $437,861,511 74
Reitze David $425,331,590 4
Arthur Larry $420,945,857 52
Silva David R $410,416,666 14
David Weber $404,595,490 6
Scott Jacqueline S $404,078,607 22
Gelbke C Konrad $403,422,131 9
Lander Eric S $399,347,466 39
Vogt Rochus $380,747,749 4
Recipient organizations: 177343

Top 50 Recipient organizations:

Recipient organizations Funding Projects count
Johns Hopkins University $15,183,517,567 41062
University Of Washington $12,970,086,933 36447
University Of Pennsylvania $11,532,100,018 34692
University Of California San Francisco $11,480,991,836 32329
Stanford University $9,818,353,618 27698
University Of California San Diego $9,520,017,608 25810
Yale University $9,318,427,882 29349
Washington University $9,202,358,763 25902
Duke University $9,128,489,468 24794
University Of Pittsburgh At Pittsburgh $8,810,326,970 25820
University Of California Los Angeles $8,613,252,413 26519
University Of North Carolina Chapel Hill $8,463,428,258 26006
Columbia University Health Sciences $7,525,121,925 15964
University Of Michigan At Ann Arbor $7,353,170,907 25980
Massachusetts General Hospital $6,938,392,982 18968
NCI - Basic Sciences $6,831,807,238 11655
Brigham And Women'S Hospital $6,225,804,260 15361
Vanderbilt University $6,118,554,803 18673
Niaid Extramural Activities $5,912,129,063 9448
Emory University $5,743,917,650 17398
University Of Chicago $5,660,407,728 16190
University Of Southern California $5,399,553,995 14337
Massachusetts Institute Of Technology $5,383,710,851 14066
University Of Alabama At Birmingham $5,383,437,718 16702
University Of California Berkeley $5,363,074,104 17543
Baylor College Of Medicine $5,288,405,614 15366
University Of Minnesota Twin Cities $5,066,860,883 18423
University Of Wisconsin-Madison $4,913,568,670 11933
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center $4,878,655,025 7111
Case Western Reserve University $4,647,830,997 15382
University Of Illinois Urbana-Champaign $4,564,025,635 12451
Scripps Research Institute $4,512,760,850 10707
University Of Iowa $4,448,689,693 15223
University Of Michigan $4,427,787,360 10602
University Of Rochester $4,373,843,552 15072
University Of Colorado Denver $4,289,001,609 14434
Cornell University $4,116,257,210 7417
University Of Utah $4,034,514,084 13873
Oregon Health And Science University $3,977,469,421 12582
University Of Maryland Baltimore $3,799,421,143 11741
University Of California Davis $3,738,618,455 11602
$3,731,789,377 6381
University Of Arizona $3,707,649,490 13264
Columbia Univ New York Morningside $3,692,000,029 11301
University Of Florida $3,600,379,310 14012
Northwestern University $3,575,125,263 13402
University Of Wisconsin Madison $3,564,992,955 14247
California Institute Of Technology $3,485,206,263 6719
Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (Cnrs) $3,443,322,314 1013
Ohio State University $3,387,125,746 12728
Donor organizations: 120

Top 50 Donor organizations:

Donor organizations Funding Projects count
European Research Council $193,752,510,845 117407
National Science Foundation $151,121,517,615 428626
NIH - National Cancer Institute $88,379,074,005 218478
NIH - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases $70,892,963,578 158135
NIH - National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute $60,699,389,219 167020
NIH - National Institute Of General Medical Sciences $47,445,228,675 176048
NIH - National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases $37,288,045,571 132372
NIH - National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke $32,685,096,067 117640
NIH - National Institute Of Mental Health $28,972,128,222 101616
NIH - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health &Human Development $27,189,785,641 88037
NIH - National Institute On Aging $22,585,580,728 64069
NIH - National Center For Research Resources $20,252,853,596 34505
NIH - National Institute On Drug Abuse $20,165,066,644 62064
NIH - National Eye Institute $14,255,269,451 53456
NIH - National Institute Of Environmental Health Sciences $13,432,325,292 37879
NIH - National Center For Hiv, Viral Hepatitis, Stds And Tb Prevention $12,640,037,380 9860
NIH - National Institute Of Arthritis And Musculoskeletal And Skin Diseases $10,828,051,301 40945
NIH - Coordinating Office For Terrorism Preparedness And Emergency Response $10,124,532,812 1126
NIH - National Human Genome Research Institute $10,032,978,569 12079
NIH - National Center For Chronic Disease Prev And Health Promo $9,311,164,898 11054
NIH - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism $8,688,221,465 30609
National Health and Medical Research Council $8,008,381,541 19959
NIH - National Institute On Deafness And Other Communication Disorders $7,792,178,336 30218
NIH - National Institute Of Dental &Craniofacial Research $7,612,783,866 29686
NIH - National Center For Hiv/Aids, Viral Hepatitis, Std, And Tb Prevention (Nchhstp) $5,526,701,205 5073
NIH - Center For Global Health $5,306,300,571 2414
NIH - National Library Of Medicine $4,881,932,779 9188
NIH - National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering $4,733,380,083 13281
NIH - National Center For Immunication And Respiratory Diseases $3,897,524,060 1257
NIH - Office Of Public Health Preparedness And Response $3,724,802,848 466
NIH - Office Of The Director, National Institutes Of Health $3,581,818,876 5017
NIH - National Center For Advancing Translational Sciences $3,512,371,246 2449
NIH - National Institute Of Nursing Research $2,795,449,227 12611
NIH - National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health $2,175,086,342 5903
NIH - National Center For Immunization And Respiratory Diseases (Ncird) $1,791,045,890 1063
NIH - Fogarty International Center $1,571,251,953 11585
NIH - National Center For Complementary &Alternative Medicine $1,560,018,821 4743
NIH - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention $1,557,608,269 2811
NIH - National Institute On Minority Health And Health Disparities $1,475,216,837 1999
NIH - National Center On Minority Health And Health Disparities $1,465,337,843 1775
NIH - National Center For Injury Prevention And Control $1,327,423,177 3243
NIH - National Center For Infectious Diseases (Ncid) $1,273,454,565 1803
NIH - Food And Drug Administration $1,209,235,201 4281
NIH - Office Of The Director, Centers For Disease Control &Prevention $1,063,969,259 769
NIH - National Center For Environmental Health $914,921,241 2101
NIH - Office Of The Director, Nci $768,953,186 1215
NIH - Office Of Public Health Research (Ophr) Fmo/ Pgo/Miso/Maso Users $733,983,050 723
NIH - Division Of Cancer Prevention And Control $643,298,327 3261
NIH - Division Of Cancer Treatment $500,940,818 4903
NIH - Division Of Epidemiology And Clinical Applications $492,293,708 1871